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Brinkman, Barbara J. Recycling, Oil. Behaviour of different industrial waste oils in a pyrolysis process: metals distribution and valuable products. The unit was first flushed with nitrogen to remove air, and then kept for 4 hours under a hydrogen gas pressure of 5 bars to check any leakage. The liquid feed and the hydrogen gas streams were injected under pressure at the top of the reactor, both cross the different zones of the reactor in down-flow direction.
Determination of the optimum pressure for high oil recovery The experiment was carried out by the evaporator apparatus. After each experiment, the apparatus were washed with n-hexane solvent in order to remove any contaminants that accumulated in the column, condenser and vacuum lines. The n-hexane washed the contaminants and accumulated them at the bottom of the still pot where they can be removed.
After washing, all connections and joints were re-lubricated, and prepared for the next experiment. The evaporator operation variable that was studied was: Vacuum pressure: 4 and 8mbars.
The first experiment at 4 mbar was considered the best dehydration condition. The presence of excessive water contamination will affect the viscosity of the oil and this may give rise to emulsion formation and can also lead to gear tooth and bearing problems.
The oil recovery and ash reduction for the same ratio are better than that obtained for solvent to oil ratio of and Solvent to oil ratio vs. There was increasing of sulphur removal at high reaction temperature as shown in Fig. Pour point - This decrease in pour point is because of degradations of additives, which were present in fresh oil as pour point depressants. These results show that the refining method is comparatively better than other methods used in the past.
Specific gravity - The value of specific gravity of used engine oil is slightly above that of fresh oil. It could be lower or higher than fresh engine oil depending on the nature and type of contaminations. Viscosity - The decrease in viscosity of used oil value is attributed to the removal of aromatic contents that are normally responsible for the high viscosity value. The result of the viscosity test shows that, the used lube oil has lost most of its viscosity due to contamination. However, refining has restored most of its viscosity. This can be attributed to possible conversion of contaminants by hydrogenation and their removal.
This means that solvent to oil ratio has an impact on the oil recovered and has to be optimised in order to recover the highest amount of oil possible.
Table 5: SPSS analysis on the effect of residence time on sulphur removal Beta value for temperature is 0. This means that both variables have an impact on the sulphur removal with residence time having a negative one implying that the smaller the residence time the higher the sulphur content removed. On the basis of experimental work, it was found that this method effectively removed contaminants from used lubricating base oil and returned the oil to a quality essentially equivalent to oils produced by fresh lube oil stocks.
The results have clearly showed that during purification of fuel oil, the sulphur content as major impurity is significantly reduced. Also, there is improvement in viscosity, specific gravity, pour and flash points. This has shown that aromatics, carbon residues, and ash of the oil have been reduced. Therefore, it is possible to refine used lubricating oil. Equipment Design Agitated thin film evaporator spreads a thin layer or film of liquid on one side of a metallic wall, with heat supplied to the other side.
It has a vertical cylinder where the feed material is distributed to the inner surface. As the liquid flows downward, axially arranged blades distribute the liquid as a thin film, which is constantly mixed. Because of low pressure drop during gas flow inside the evaporator the boiling temperature of liquid, which is evaporated, depends only on its composition and does not depend on liquid position in the evaporator. Fig 3: Agitated thin film evaporator 2D drawings Chemical engineering design for the agitated thin film evaporator Table 6 below shows the chemical engineering design parameters for the ATFE.
Table 7: Agitator design summary Agitator Number required 1 No. A Proportional Integral PI controller was used. Thermocouples were used as sensing elements and were implemented in the control architecture. At this temperature only base oil is in gas form. The flow rate of steam is manipulated to control the temperature of the process fluid.
A combination of feedback and feed-forward control schemes was used to ensure good results. Feed forward scheme was achieved by measuring the inlet temperature of oil and sending the information to the PI controller. The transmitter converts the reading from the thermocouple to a standard signal and transmits it to the PI controller. PI control uses an algorithm that is proportional to the difference between a set point SP and a process variable PV which in this case is temperature, and integral time-function algorithms, which provide a continuous-control process output to meet the desired set point.
The PI controllers sends a correcting signal to a converter which converts the correction signal to pneumatic signal and send it to an actuator. If the temperature is too hot, the control valve was adjusted to decrease steam flow rate. If the temperature is too low the valve is adjusted to increase steam flow rate, thus increasing the amount of heat exchanged and temperature of the process fluid increases.
They are less expensive than most comparable types. New Password. Presently, there are three lubricant refineries in the country with a total installed capacity of , tonnes. Go to top. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. The authors describe the basic steps of used oil treatment including dehydration, distillation or solvent extraction, and finishing. Pair your accounts.
Pressure is controlled as it affects relative volatility, temperature difference as well as process safety. A vacuum pump is installed to maintain the vacuum system needed. If there is an excessive increase in pressure the bypass valve opens and releases pressure. The control loop is given in the Fig 4 below.
Summary. Used lubricating oil is a valuable resource. However, it must be re- refined mainly due to the accumulation of physical and chemical contaminants in . The manufacture of lubricating oil is the most energy-intensive process in a crude oil refinery, and used lubricating oils are often burned in industrial or.
These parameters if slightly adjusted using additives results in refined lubricating oil grade Refining of used lubricating oils promotes sustainable development since it deals with chemical waste management and disposal. Adams, M. Prediction of oil yield from oil shale minerals using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Fuel 84 14—15 , p, — Andre, H. The Canadian J.
Coulson, J. Guthrie, U. Petroleum Products Handbook. Haj Assad, M. Mathematical modelling of falling liquid film evaporation process, International journal of refrigeration, Vol. Perry, R.